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Graduate Seminar


Peace operations and post-conflict reconstruction


API 6337

Graduate School of Public and International Affairs

University of Ottawa

Winter 2018


Prof. Roland Paris

Office: FSS 6053

Office hours: By appointment


Course Description

Concepts and practice of peacekeeping, peace-making and post-conflict reconstruction. Topics include the history and development of peace operations, early warning and conflict prevention, gender and peace operations, the role of military and civilian actors in peace operations, and the rehabilitation of countries after civil war.


Quizzes (4)


Policy-research assignment


Final exam





On four occasions during the semester, students will write a quiz at the beginning of class. The quiz will test knowledge of the readings for that week. Quiz dates will not be announced in advance.

Policy-research assignment

The centerpiece of the course is a group assignment in which students will research and analyze a current policy issue and provide recommendations. Details of this assignment will be provided in class.

Final exam

The final exam will cover the entire course. Duration: 3 hours.


The participation grade will be based not only on students’ regular involvement in seminar discussions but on evidence that they have completed, and understood, the weekly readings.


Follow links on the syllabus. To access subscriber-only material, you may either: (1) connect to the library website from a University of Ottawa-networked computer, or (2) follow these instructions for off-campus access: You will be provided with copies of the readings that are not linked to the syllabus.

Cheating and Plagiarism

Academic fraud – including plagiarism, submitting work that was produced by someone else, or submitting the same work in more than one course – may result in a failing grade for a particular assignment, a failing grade for the course, and/or suspension for various lengths of time or permanent expulsion from the university.  The onus is on each student to know and comply with the university’s regulations on academic fraud.

Lateness Policy

There will be a penalty for late submissions. Exceptions are made only for illness or other serious situations deemed as such by the professor. University regulations require all absences from exams and all late submissions due to illness to be supported by a medical certificate. The Faculty reserves the right to accept or reject the reason put forth if it is not medical. Reasons such as travel, work and errors made while reading the exam schedule are not usually accepted. In the event of an illness or related complications, only the counseling service and the campus clinic (located at 100 Marie-Curie) may issue valid certificates to justify a delay or absence. Each day of late submission will result in a penalty of 5% (weekends included). This also applies to assignments sent by email (time of receipt of the email indicates the time of delivery). Please notify the professor as soon as possible if a religious holiday or event forces your absence during an evaluation.

Mental Health and Wellness

The University of Ottawa is committed to the wellbeing of its students and to ensuring that every student can experience good mental health in order to complete their work and participate fully in university life. For more information, visit,

Sexual Violence

The University of Ottawa does not tolerate any form of sexual violence. Sexual violence refers to any act of a sexual nature committed without consent, such as rape, sexual harassment or online harassment. The University, as well as student and employee associations, offers a full range of resources and services allowing members of our community to receive information and confidential assistance and providing for a procedure to report an incident or make a complaint. For more information, visit




Course Schedule

Jan. 11          Introduction to the Course


No required reading.

Jan. 19          Origins and Development of Peace Operations


Marrack Goulding, “The Evolution of United Nations Peacekeeping,” International Affairs 69:3 (July 1993), excerpt.


David M. Malone and Karin Wermester, “Boom and Bust: The Changing Nature of UN Peacekeeping,” International Peacekeeping 7:4 (2000), pp. 37-54.


Roland Paris, At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 13-51.


Mats Berdal, “The State of UN Peacekeeping: Lessons from Congo,” Journal of Strategic Studies (2016, published online in advance of print).


Report of the High-Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations (June 16, 2015).

Jan. 26          Preparation for the Policy Research Assignment


You will receive instructions on readings and preparation for this session.

Feb. 2            Early Warning and Conflict Prevention


Lars-Erik Cederman and Nils B. Weidmann, “Predicting Armed Conflict: Time to Adjust Our Expectations?” Science 355:6324 (February 2017), pp. 474-476.


Ernesto Verdeja, “Predicting Genocide and Mass Atrocities,” Genocide Studies and Prevention 9:3 (2016), pp. 12-32.


Micah Zenko and Rebecca R. Friedman, “UN Early Warning for Preventing Conflict,” International Peacekeeping 18:1 (2011), pp. 21-37.


“Can the Security Council Prevent Conflict?” Security Council Report, Research report no. 1 (February 9, 2017).


Nkwachukwu Orji, “Preventive Action and Conflict Mitigation in Nigeria’s 2015 Elections,” Democratization 24:4 (2017), pp. 707-723.


Scan these websites:


Fragile States Index


Early Warning Project

Feb. 9            Protection of Civilians and the ‘Responsibility to Protect’


Paul D. Williams, “The R2P, Protection of Civilians, and UN Peacekeeping Operations,” in Alex J. Bellamy and Tim Dunne, eds., The Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016).


Lisa Hultman, Jacob Kathman and Megan Shannon, “United Nations Peacekeeping and Civilian Protection in Civil War,” American Journal of Political Science 57:4 (October 2013), pp. 777-1028.


Ray Murphy, “The United Nations Mission in South Sudan and the Protection of Civilians,” Journal of Conflict and Security Law 22:3 (Winter 2017), pp. 367-394.


Roland Paris, “The ‘Responsibility to Protect’ and the Structural Problems of Preventive Humanitarian Intervention,” International Peacekeeping 21:5 (2014), pp. 569-603.


Jason Ralph and Adiran Gallagher, “Legitimacy Faultlines in International Society: The Responsibility to Protect and Prosecute after Libya,” Review of International Studies 41:3 (July 2015), pp. 553-73.

Feb. 16         Peacebuilding and Development


Ibrahim Bangura, “We Can't Eat Peace: Youth, Sustainable Livelihoods and the Peacebuilding Process in Sierra Leone,” Journal of Peacebuilding and Development 11:2 (2016), pp. 37-50.


Chandy et al., “Aid Effectiveness in Fragile States: How Bad Is It and How Can it be Improved?” Brookings Institution (2016), read sections I, II, VI & VII.


Timothy Donais and Erin McCandless, “International Peace Building and the Emerging Inclusivity Norm,” Third World Quarterly 38(2): 291-310.


World Bank and UN, “Pathways to Peace: Inclusive Approaches to Preventing Violent Conflict” (2017), main messages.

Feb. 23         No Meeting (University Break)

March 2        Student Presentations


Students will present preliminary findings from their policy-research assignments. Guidelines for presentations will be provided in class. Written briefings must be submitted by Feb. 27 at 12 noon.

March 9        Gender and Peace Operations


United Nations Development Fund for Women, “Security Council Resolution 1325: Annotated and Explained”


Anne-Kathrin Kreft, “The Gender Mainstreaming Gap: Security Council Resolution 1325 and UN Peacekeeping Mandates,” International Peacekeeping 24:1 (2017), pp. 132-158.


Jeni Whalan, “Dealing with Disgrace: Addressing Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in UN Peacekeeping,” Providing for Peacekeeping no. 15, International Peace Institute (August 2017).


Stéfanie von Hlatky, “Gender and Peacekeeping,” Policy Options, November 8, 2017.


Policy statements:


“Canada's National Action Plan 2017-2022 – For the Implementation of the UN Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security” (2017)


 “Canada Bolsters Peacekeeping and Civilian Protection Measures” (2017)


“The Elsie Initiative on Women in Peace Operations” (2017)

March 16     Hostile Environments and Peace Enforcement


Lise Morjé Howard and Anjali Kaushlesh Dayal, “The Use of Force in UN Peacekeeping,” International Organization (2017, published online in advance of print).


Alex J. Bellamy and Charles T. Hunt, “Twenty-First Century UN Peace Operations: Protection, Force and the Changing Security Environment,” International Affairs 91:6 (November 2015), pp. 1277-1298.


Timo Smit, “Multilateral Peace Operations and the Challenges of Terrorism and Violent Extremism,” SIPRI Background Paper, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (November 2017).


Kevin Sieff, “The World’s Most Dangerous UN Mission,” Washington Post, February 17, 2017.


Mateja Peter, “Between Doctrine and Practice: The UN Peacekeeping Dilemma,” Global Governance 21:3 (July-September 2015), pp. 351-370.

March 23     Post-Conflict Peacebuilding


Roland Paris and Timothy D. Sisk, “Confronting the Contradictions,” in Paris and Sisk, eds., Dilemmas of Statebuilding: Confronting the Contradictions of Postwar Peace Operations (Routledge, 2009), pp. 304-315.


Barbara F. Walter, “Why Bad Governance Leads to Repeat Civil War,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 59:7 (2014) pp. 1242-72. 


Séverine Autesserre, “Hobbes and the Congo: Frames, Local Violence, and International Intervention,” International Organization 63:2 (April 2009), pp. 249-280.


Roland Paris, “Peacebuilding,” in Sam Dawes and Thomas G. Weiss, eds., The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming).

March 30     No Meeting (Holiday)

April 6           Final Exam